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HIV and AIDS: A Study of the Relevance of Health Education Programmes
A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education
Susan Freda Warman
Faculty of Education, Brunel University
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (8K)
CHAPTER 2: THE SCIENCE OF HIV AND AIDS (45K - LONG!)
2.1 The First Controversy - Who Discovered HIV?
2.2 The Second Controversy - Does HIV cause AIDS?
2.3 The Third Controversy - What is HIV?
2.4 The Fourth Controversy - What is AIDS?
2.5 The Fifth Controversy - Is the Test for HIV Reliable?
2.6 The Sixth Controversy - How Efficacious is AZT?
CHAPTER 3: MEDIA COVERAGE OF HIV AND AIDS (18K)
3.1 The First Controversy - Who Discovered HIV?
3.2 The Second Controversy - Does HIV cause AIDS?
3.3 The Third Controversy - What is HIV?
3.4 The Fourth Controversy - What is AIDS?
3.5 The Fifth Controversy - Is the Test for HIV Reliable?
3.6 The Sixth Controversy - How Efficacious is AZT?
TABLE 1 - HIV/AIDS NEWSPAPER COVERAGE (37K - LONG!)
CHAPTER 4: HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES AND TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS RELATING TO HIV AND AIDS (27K)
4.1 HIV/AIDS in the School Curriculum
4.1.1 Legislation regarding the Curriculum
4.1.2 Limitations on HIV/AIDS Education - Ignorance and Self-Censorship
4.1.3 Political and Economic Influences on HIV/AIDS Education
4.2 Non-Curriculum issues relating to HIV/AIDS
4.2.1 HASAWA [Health and Safety at Work] Legislation
4.2.2 Extra-Curricular Factors
4.3 Learning Materials and Teaching Methods
4.4 Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Education Programmes
4.4.1 Review of Gascoigne's Work
4.4.2 Other studies of school HIV/AIDS education programmes
4.4.3 National HIV/AIDS Awareness Campaigns
TABLE 2 - WIDELY USED HEALTH EDUCATION RESOURCE MATERIAL (4K)
CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH STRATEGY AND METHODOLOGY (8K)
5.1 Research Strategy
5.2 Research Methodology
5.2.1 The Teacher Survey
5.2.2 The Student Survey
CHAPTER 6: A STUDY OF HIV/AIDS EDUCATION IN 60 HERTFORDSHIRE SECONDARY SCHOOLS (32K - LONG!)
6.0 Teacher Survey: Introduction
6.1 Sample Size and Response Rate
6.2.1 Nature of School and HIV/AIDS Policy
6.2.2 Who Teaches about HIV/AIDS?
6.2.3 Staff Development
6.2.4 Education or Training?
6.2.5 Teaching Styles
6.2.6 Learning Materials
6.2.7 Is HIV/AIDS Education delivered in the context of other STDs?
6.2.8 Coverage of Controversial Issues
6.3 Discussion of Findings
6.3.1 The Nature of the Responding Schools
6.3.2 Who teaches about HIV/AIDS?
6.3.3 Staff Development on HIV/AIDS
6.3.4 Education or Training?
6.3.5 Teaching Styles
6.3.6 Use of Learning Materials
6.3.7 Is HIV/AIDS Education delivered in the context of other STDs?
6.3.8 Coverage of Controversial issues
CHAPTER 7: A STUDY OF FE ['Further Education'] COLLEGE STUDENTS' EXPERIENCES OF SCHOOL HIV/AIDS EDUCATION (30K - LONG!)
7.0 Student Survey: Introduction
7.1 Sample Size and Response Rate
7.2.1 Student Perceptions of HIV/AIDS Education
7.2.2 Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS and Awareness of Controversies
7.3 Discussion of Findings
7.3.1 Students' Perceptions of and Satisfaction with HIV/AIDS Education
7.3.2 Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS and Awareness of Controversies
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (19K)
8.1 Critical Review of Research Methods
8.1.1 Advantages of research methods Adopted
8.1.2 Disadvantages of research methods Adopted
8.2 Conclusions of the Teacher and Student Surveys
8.3.1 Recommendations for HIV/AIDS Education programmes
8.3.2 Recommendations for Future Research
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI wish to thank Margaret Gascoigne for recommending useful texts and lending me books and her thesis so generously, over a long period of time
Bernard Down for his patience and encouragement
My family and friends for their support, encouragement, long-suffering, and technical advice on the quirks of the word-processing package.
A study of the relevance of Health Education Programmes Professor Hiram Caton, head of the school of Applied Ethics at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, has said: "Scientists will have to come to terms with the awful fact that the AIDS epidemic was a mirage, manufactured by scientists who believed that integrity could be maintained amidst the diverting influences of big money, prestige and politics."
Neville Hodgkinson, a journalist with the Sunday Times (until Spring 1994), has spearheaded a campaign to bring to the public's attention the diversity of opinion among scientists about HIV and AIDS. In an article in the Sunday Times 3.4.94, p7, he quotes Caton as saying: "The orthodox view will collapse because it flunks the practical tests. No vaccine will be forthcoming. No effective treatment will appear. The hype will exhaust its credibility."
Just one week later, on 10.4.94, without reference to the Hodgkinson article, the Observer published a leader, reporting that development of a vaccine against AIDS will be delayed by a decade. The prophecy was already coming true.
History may well prove the HIV/AIDS phenomenon to be the greatest public scandal of the late 1980s and early 1990s. There are misunderstandings and oversimplifications surrounding AIDS. There is massive spending on avenues of research, which may lead nowhere, and on misguided programmes of preventative health education and patient support. These wasted efforts divert funding and energy from programmes of research and education, which would prove more fruitful in curing the terrible disease and protecting those at risk from contracting it. Three years ago, when I started gathering information for this dissertation, dissident views were barely heard. During the intervening period, they have gained momentum.
Through a literature search, this study establishes the various theories about AIDS, as published in the scientific literature, in particular:
- who discovered HIV?
- the role of HIV in causing AIDS
- the origin of HIV
- the definition of AIDS and geographical variation in the way it manifests itself
- the reliability of the test for HIV
- the efficacy of AZT in treating and preventing AIDS
It goes on to investigate the extent to which information about these controversies is published in the mass media and then explores the extent to which that information appears in educational literature and learning materials used in secondary schools.
There follows an investigation of the reliability and relevance of secondary school HIV/AIDS education programmes, in terms of how well they draw upon the knowledge base of the subject, established through the literature search. The research methodology adopted is described and critically reviewed. The study comprises:
- a questionnaire survey of one PSE [NB: I haven't been able to find out what 'PSE' stands for! - RW] and one Science teacher in each Hertfordshire Local Authority funded secondary school
- a questionnaire survey of first year students (recent school leavers) at West Herts College
The teacher survey is designed to establish the extent to which teachers of HIV/AIDS programmes are aware of the issues covered by the literature search and how they themselves perceive their role. The student survey seeks to establish the extent to which past pupils are aware of the same issues and explores their perceptions of the HIV/AIDS education they received at secondary school. Finally, the study makes recommendations, based on the conclusions of the surveys, to inform a thorough review of secondary school HIV/AIDS education programmes and to suggest possible avenues for future research.
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CONTENTS & ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & ABSTRACT
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2: THE SCIENCE OF HIV AND AIDS
CHAPTER 3: MEDIA COVERAGE OF HIV AND AIDS
TABLE 1 - HIV/AIDS NEWSPAPER COVERAGE
CHAPTER 4: HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMES...
TABLE 2 - WIDELY USED ... MATERIAL
CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH STRATEGY AND METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 6: ... HIV/AIDS EDUCATION IN 60 ... SCHOOLS
CHAPTER 7: ... STUDENTS' EXPERIENCES OF SCHOOL HIV/AIDS EDUCATION
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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