The very fine particles may be carried for many miles, settling out as a dust-like layer across the landscape. This is known as an ashfall. If liquid magma is ejected as a spray, the particles will solidify in the air as small fragments of volcanic glass. Unlike the ash that forms from burning wood or other combustible materials, volcanic ash is hard and abrasive. It does not dissolve in water, and it conducts electricity, especially when it is wet.
Loud thunder, lightning, as well as the strong smell of sulfur accompany an ashfall.
Fluoride poisoning and death can occur in livestock that graze on ash-covered grass if fluoride is present in high concentrations
Electromagnetic wave insulation
Volcanic ash particles are charged and disturb communication by radio.
ABOARD the Enola Gay, Nelson had already sent word that the mission was a success. Now Parsons handed him a second message that, when decoded, would tell General Farrell, waiting anxiously in the 509th's operations room on Tinian, the news he had been waiting hours to hear.
CLEAR CUT. SUCCESSFUL IN ALL RESPECTS. VISIBLE EFFECTS GREATER THAN ALAMOGORDO. CONDITIONS NORMAL IN AIRPLANE FOLLOWING DELIVERY. PROCEEDING TO BASE.
After a third and final circle around Hiroshima, Tibbets put the Enola Gay on course for Tinian. The Great Artiste and No. 91 formed up behind, and the three bombers headed down the "Hirohito Highway" for home.
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