Rae West's Anarcho-Generalist Visuo-Mental Artefact Internaut Surfers Sub-Site v. 11 August 2017 00:21
Compassion fatigue? Bored with serious issues? Oppressed by media idiocy? Cast down by the infinite meanness of your fellow man? Exasperated by Jewish lies? – Relax here with Rae West's General/ Trivia/ Visual Artefacts/ Errors Site for Internauts (the French expression).
Then go to the serious stuff here big-lies.org or nukelies.org or Email
12 Days of Christmas Little-Known Facts about Midwinter and Midsummer
Amen Could this be the Egyptian word Amun...? And other amen-related issues
Beatle George Harrison's Garden - Unique Picture! Years ago & Beatles & Bob Dylan!
Circumcision Male circumcision: lost 1996 piece
COMPUTER WEBSITE HINTS - Learn simple HTML!
Diana Proletarian tributes to Lady Diana Spencer
Drugs Drugs: heroin, opium, cannabis...
Early Christianity: Was It Hi-Jacked by Jews? 'Yeshua' as a Jewish fictional character, injected into Greek and Latin Christianity | Identical standalone piece
Elvis Presley theory: Welsh Saint, Biblical Name, Mountains, Stonehenge...
Fairy Tales A few remarks on Fairy Tales
'Flat Earth' Publicity - Why? What motivations are behind the publicity of the 'flat earth'?
Fluoridation Poisonous fluoride compounds in toothpaste and water
Gobëkli Tepe Turkey's Turkey? Is Gobëkli Tepe an Archaeological Fraud or Hoax?
Graffiti Collected over about twenty years. All genuine graffiti! WARNING! Strong language
Greeks, Constellations, and Genetics Greek Mnemonics? Stars and Human Genetics
Lawyers Jokes about Lawyers - Punch joke, classical remarks, and links to other sites
Leys Leys (or 'ley lines') and Alfred Watkins as a Pioneer
'Lunar Wave' and 'moon as back projection', 'flat earth' 'Lunar Waves' - Artefacts of Video Cameras
McDonalds Kroc McLibel Trial of 1997 controversial leaflet (opens another window)
Monarchy Mooning at the Monarchy, a Mayday 2000 protest souvenir, and more
Motorbike Design Motorcycle Design and Norman Hossack: the Hard Path of the Inventor; a True Story
Muesli What is the terrifying truth about muesli?? Find out here!!
'Orbs' Yet another silly visual artefact
Orion's Penis - for Bauval, Gilbert, Hancock
Peter Merlin Cane Graffiti in Paintings
Political Correctness Understand and stamp out this phrase!
Puzzle Rings Arabic or Egyptian Puzzle Ring: How to Solve
Razor Blades Three Razor Blade Myths, starting 1950s, 1960s, 1970s
Reverse speech aural artefacts from voice recordings
'Rods' visual artefacts from video recorders (yes!)
'Ropeworms' an 'artefact' in another sense
Salt in Diet and Campaigns to Reduce Consumption Another covert demonisation policy
Shapeshifters & Reptilians yet more video artefacts
Smoking How dangerous is it? Little-known diet link!
Star Trek based on Captain Cook's voyages? Based on Khazaria?
Taj Mahal Even the Taj Mahal has a 'conspiracy theory' ...
UFOs Psychology. Human failings & why belief may be tacitly encouraged
UFO emails sent to my earlier site in about 2000
World Tree Tree as an Axis of Rotation?
Year 2000 Panic in 1999? Thirty-five years of dross
Yoghurt The truth about yoghurt! At last!
HTML, contents © Rae West. First uploaded 98-04-09. This revision mostly 2001-01-06. Other material includes: Smoking 2013-01-21; Gobekli Tepe added 2013-02-07. Circumcision re-uploaded 2013-04-28 plus a few notes. Leys 2013-10-05; yoghurt 2013-10-20; salt and diet 2014-03-09; UFOs and Jews 2014-10-08. 'Lunar Waves' added 2014-12-01; 'Orbs' 2015-10-21. 'Ropeworms' 2016-07-19. Original Christianity Hijack idea 2016-08-17. Twelve days of Christmas 2017-01-18
This is part of www.big-lies.org
Amen © Rae West 1999
Is the word 'Amen' derived from the Egyptian 'Amun'?
and other amen-related issues
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|What is the origin of "Amen"? Looking through a sample of my downloaded rationalists, Ingersoll, Mangasarian, McCabe, Wheless,and A D White, I found, surprisingly, that not one of them considers this question anywhere. Let's examine it...|
|Concise Oxford Dictionary & Websters agree: "Hebrew Amen adopted into Greek". There's no comment on a possible Egyptian or Babylonian (or other) origin. "Hebrew = certainty, truth." or 'verily!'. A Biblical Dictionary agrees: true, truly. So be it. The gist is that 'amen' is the last word in truth.|
A friend of mine (who shall remain nameless, but who knows some Hebrew) thinks Amen is formed on the acronym principle from three words (or syllables?) meaning God, King, and something else. This theory seems likely to be a retrospective fix-up.
|A brief survey reveals there are be surprisingly few mentions in the OT. Psalms has some; and Deuteronomy has a long list along the lines of: 27:16: "Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen." You can say that again!|
But almost all (or all?) books in the NT contain 'Amen': e.g.: Corinthians 1 14:16: Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?
|A few other samples:|
As seith my lord, so make us alle goode men,
And brynge us to his heighe blisse. Amen.
'Shakespeare': always uses it in an emphatic but not very religious sense, e.g.-
Borrow's Romany Rye has something (but my copy is warehoused, so I can't check).
Typical modern constructions, used in assorted ceremonies from military to culinary, generally express unthinking assent, related to the traditional use as a device to show that the multitude are willing to be sheeplike:
|There's considerable variation in the spelling of Egyptian words. In 1922, when Howard Carter, working for Lord Carnarfon, first saw the 'solid bullion' in the tomb, he spelt the mummified inhabitant Tut-ankh-amen. The spelling 'Ammon Ra' was common then, too. By the 1930s Breasted wrote Tutankhamon. And by 1972, the British Museum presented the 'Treasures of Tutankhamun'. Websters spells Amun 'Amon'. This suggests - as might be expected from a language very long dead - that the pronunciation is largely guesswork, with the vowels more questionable than the consonants. 'Amun' and 'Amen' on this test could clearly be the same word.|
|On Egyptian influence, computer searching reveals miscellaneous points:|
"The story in the Gospel of Luke, the first and second chapters is," says Malvert, "a reproduction, 'point by point,' of the story in stone of the miraculous birth of Amunothph."
Tuthmoses (also written Tut-Moses, Tuthmosis) is one suggestion of Jewish influence - whatever that means. Another example of this is in David Rohl, who uses Nile inundation records to try to find 'fat' and 'lean' years, and identifies the Amenemhat III Labyrinth and the Bahr Yussef canal as other evidences of 'Joseph'. This is one obvious possible route of transmission from Egypt of the word 'Amun'.
Everyone agrees Amun (or Amon) was originally the Egyptian god of the reproductive forces and, later as amalgamated with Ra (or Re) to form a superior Amun, the king of the gods. Quite a number of Pharaohs include Amun as part of their name: without worrying too much about spelling, or who these people were, I found with a search: Amenmesse, several Amenhoteps including Amenhotep IV who renamed himself Akhenaton, but apparently was defeated by the priests (who ritually defaced his mummy) in his attempt to make Aton the true and only god. Ary-mery-Amun, Amenimnisu, Amenemope, a collection of Amenemhets, and the famous Tutankhamun.
|Could there be an Indian influence? There's a suggestion that 'amen' came into Christianity from India, 'Om being the traditional first name of god'. I have no idea whether there's anything in this.|
|The Egyptian 'Temple of Ammon' is etymologically related to the Greek for sand. (Says Holmyard). Alexander of Macedon - ["Alexander killed more Greeks than Persians; but don't say that to any Greek"] - was 'declared' a god by divine generation, by the Pagan Oracle of Jupiter Ammon. Alexander supposedly wanted to be buried in the Egyptian oasis (west of 'Alexandria') where this oracle, of 'zeus-ammon' (or Jupiter-Ammon) was. Alexander appears in the Quran as the 'two horned one', after a ram the supposed father of Ammon. Edom, Ammon, and Moab. Ammonites and lots on children of Ammon.|
|So there's convincing evidence for the existence of the name 'Amun' for thousands of years in Egypt; and for cultural contact which might have spread it. I don't know whether it's known whether the priests of Ammon Ra and Jupiter Ammon and the rest chanted "Amun" at any point in their proceedings - though they must surely have mentioned it occasionally. No doubt the conventional meaning in such Hebrew writings as exist now use 'amen' to as a confirming device. Whether they always did, and if so whether the meaning was the same I have no idea. However, one suspects the word must always have been a special, isolated word, not used in ordinary senses, but reserved for incantations.|
|So I conclude there's a strong a priori case for "Amen" simply being the name of the God Amun. It's amusing to contemplate the idea of people using a word for a couple of thousand years without realising its meaning.|
|Tailpiece: Most frivolous quasi-derivation? Irma Kurtz, when young, thought "A-men" in the US pronunciation was something to do with men.
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HTML Rae West (randomised color technique). First uploaded 1999-02-12. Standalone file uploaded 5 Aug 2016. 'Tutankhamun' mask and prop 9 Nov 2016
George Harrison's Garden (and two more old photos)
© Rae West 1998, 1999It struck me some surfers might like this trivial info on ex-Beatle George Harrison.
In the early 1960s he bought a large house, situated on a hill on the way out of (or into) an Oxfordshire town, and popularly believed to have belonged to an eccentric stockbroker. (In England, anyone rich used to be thought of as a 'stockbroker'). This man had his house decorated with things like gnomes and, in its garden, is at least one artificial tumulus with a megalithic entranceway, leading into an artificial cave, fitted with such things as stalactites made of springs covered with papier mâché. I imagine this was in imitation of people like Hugh Walpole, who had an entire megalithic monument shifted from Jersey (I think - from memory). 'Crackerbox Palace' is how this house appears in a George Harrison song; it's also somewhere in the artwork of 'All Things Must Pass'. At least, this cave existed in the early 1960s, when a small group of us climbed over a wall and daringly had a look, before it was fenced. Below is an authentic photo! Incidentally, George employed his brother to help in his huge garden.
Two more old photos, in case anyone's interested. The image size in each case was about an eighth of an inch square, hence the blurry quality:
Left: Beatles at Finsbury Park Astoria 1964? | Right Bob Dylan at Leicester 1966?
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HTML Rae West First uploaded 98-04-08 This revn 98-06-21. Other old photos added 99-10-25. Slightly modified 99-12-30 on the news of a stabbing..
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MALE CIRCUMCISION: THE PROS, THE CONS, AND THE BOTTOM LINEAnon dated 1996
Here's some online material from the Occidental Observer. Variety of viewpoints. 2010.
Detail redrawn from wall of tomb at Saqqara, c. 2300 BC. Illustration from British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, 1996 revision, by Ian Shaw and Paul Nicholson. .. The Egyptians themselves may have regarded circumcision as an ethnic 'identifier', judging from depictions of foreigners in battle scenes...
Is circumcision is an unnecessary ritual? Presumably in addition to the Biblical and other connections there's a financial consideration too—just as large numbers of children used to have their tonsils removed in the UK, for no very satisfactory medical reason—Rae West.
'Cultural' point: male circumcision is helpful in anal sex: is this the intention behind this 'Jewish'/ Moslem activity? Just as female 'circumcision' (in fact, removal of the clitoris) has the intention of removing female pleasure?—Rae West
THE ALLEGED BENEFITS
THE ALLEGED DISADVANTAGES AND RISKS
THE BOTTOM LINE
WHEN PARENTS DO DECIDE TO CIRCUMCISE
WHEN PARENTS DECIDE NOT TO CIRCUMCISE
REFERENCES [Note: some probably outdated]
THE ALLEGED BENEFITS1. Circumcision allegedly reduces the likelihood of UT Is.
Point: A number of studies indicate that circumcision significantly reduces the likelihood of urinary tract infections (UT Is) during infancy. Some studies have shown as much as a ten-fold reduction in the rate of UT Is in circumcised infants as compared to that in intact (not circumcised) infants.
Counterpoint: The rate of UT Is in intact infants is only about 1 or 2 in 100 (depending on which study is quoted) while the rate of complications from infant circumcision is about 4 in 100 (depending on exactly what is defined as a complication). For many reasons, it is difficult to compare the reduced likelihood of UT Is and the rate of complications from circumcision, but detailed comparisons seem to indicate that the benefits and risks cancel each other out.
2. Circumcision allegedly reduces the likelihood of penile cancer.
Point: Although it is not unknown in circumcised men, penile cancer is most often seen in intact men.
Counterpoint: Penile cancer is extremely rare. It occurs in the United States in about 1 of 100,000 men per year (overall). Although the rate might be higher if we were to consider only intact men, the rate is simply not high enough to justify routine, infant circumcision. In addition, the causal agent in cancer of the penis is a known virus, and good hygiene appears to be a superior alternative to routine circumcision.
In addition, penile cancer has been occasionally observed in circumcised men and it is often in the circumcision scar itself that this cancer occurs. In fact, one well-conducted study found that more than a third of those who were suffering penile cancer were circumcised.
3. Circumcision allegedly reduces the likelihood of cancer of the cervix in one's female partner(s).
Counterpoint: This has been fairly well laid to rest as simply untrue. Studies comparing the frequency of cervical cancer in Israeli women (whose husbands are almost always circumcised) with that of Scandinavian women (whose husbands are almost never circumcised) show no significant difference. In addition, there is a significant correlation between cervical cancer and both smoking and the presence of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV); in other words, it is both factors in conjunction with each other which correlate with the likelihood of cervical cancer.
4. Circumcision allegedly reduces the chance of contracting STDs and HIV infection.
Point: Several studies have shown a correlation between being intact and a higher likelihood of contracting STDs and HIV infection.
Counterpoint: Critics remind us that correlation does not prove causation. They point out that there are many methodological problems with these studies in that other possible factors, such as personal cleanliness and failure to practice safe sex, were not taken into account.
In addition, the most optimistic estimates of benefits in reducing the frequency of STDs and HIV infection are marginal and are not likely realistic. In fact, a recent study concluded that there was no definitive benefit to circumcision in preventing STDs.
5. Circumcision allegedly makes genital hygiene easier for the child.
Point: In the case of a properly performed circumcision, this is probably true.
Counterpoint: The key here is "properly performed." The fact is that an improperly performed circumcision can actually impede genital hygiene. Some circumcised children, for example, end up with adhesions and/or skin bridges which can impede hygiene and actually precipitate infections.
In addition, many people believe that it is not justified to do amputative surgery of a normal body part in order to improve hygiene when parental instruction and/or supervision would probably suffice. The care of the intact penis is not difficult (see information at end of article); in fact, the foreskin should normally be left entirely alone for the first few years.
6. The circumcised penis is allegedly more aesthetic.
Point: In the United States, where circumcision has been the norm, this is probably the viewpoint held by many parents.
Counterpoint: What is and is not aesthetically pleasing is in the eye of the beholder. In Europe, where circumcision is extremely rare, many people believe that a circumcised penis looks strangely deformed and ugly. In any case, a bungled circumcision can be especially unaesthetic even to an American. In addition, few men would likely want to accept diminished sexual sensitivity for the sake of a possible aesthetic benefit.
7. A boy who is intact will allegedly feel awkward with his mostly circumcised peers and/or relatives. [This is often referred to as "locker room syndrome."]
Point: For some intact boys who are growing up among mostly circumcised peers or relatives, this can be a problem. It is not necessarily that there is teasing of an intact child by others, but rather that the child himself may feel "different." This feeling can be so intense that the child will resent not having been circumcised.
Counterpoint: Many children feel no such awkwardness. This is especially true when the parents support their child in being intact, letting him know why it was that they made the decision that they made. In addition, circumcision rates are dropping in the U.S. to the point that in a few places it is now the norm to be intact (California is an example). In many other places it is approaching a fifty-fifty situation.
In addition, regardless of the status of peers and relatives, some men resent the fact that they were circumcised without having had any say in the matter; some become very resentful toward their parents. This is especially true in the case of a bungled circumcision.
A recent nationwide survey of adult men which was done by "Men's Confidential" magazine clearly indicates that a significantly higher percentage of adult men who are intact are satisfied with their intact status than circumcised men are with their circumcised status.
There are a number of men who are so dissatisfied with their circumcised condition that they are "restoring." In some cases, a surgical restoration is done, but more often restoring involves a long period of taping and stretching penile shaft skin until there is at least a semblance of foreskin. In this regard, it should be remembered that an intact individual can always choose to undergo a circumcision whereas a circumcised individual can never again become truly intact.
8. A circumcision during infancy allegedly precludes the possibility of a circumcision later in childhood or adulthood when it would allegedly be more expensive, more painful, more traumatic, more complicated, and more likely to result in complications.
Point: It is probably true that a circumcision in later childhood or adulthood is more complicated and more expensive, and possibly more problematic and traumatic.
It is also true that, in the U.S., 5% to 10% of intact children will eventually undergo a circumcision during childhood or adulthood, and this can be a traumatic experience. It is also true that a properly performed infant circumcision precludes the possibility of a later circumcision.
Counterpoint: The key is "properly performed." Surprisingly, it is not unheard of for children to undergo two or more circumcisions. A circumcision revision is sometimes done during the prepubertal period either to correct complications of an infant circumcision or simply because the parents and/or child are dissatisfied with the result of an infant circumcision. Some adults undergo a scar revision (or recircumcision) in adulthood.
With regard to the possibility of an intact child requiring a circumcision in childhood, critics point out that U.S. doctors (who are mostly circumcised) are generally pro-circumcision as well as unfamiliar with either the advantages of remaining intact or the care of the intact penis. They are often unaware of alternative medical and surgical procedures which are far less drastic than circumcision and are simply too anxious to take the easy way out and circumcise when it is not truly necessary.
With regard to pain, it should be noted that it is far easier and safer to control pain in the case of an older child or adult than it is in the case of an infant. Infant circumcisions are usually performed without anaesthesia and can be excruciatingly painful. In addition, the injection of local anaesthesia into free tissue (such as the penis) carries its own risks: it can, for example, cause permanent vascular and nerve damage. General anaesthesia, which should probably be the norm for circumcision of older children and adults, is simply too risky to use in the case of newborns.
THE ALLEGED DISADVANTAGES AND RISKS1. Circumcision is allegedly an unnecessary surgery which cannot be justified on medical grounds.
Point: Several cost-utility analysis studies have concluded that there is no cost-utility benefit to routine infant circumcision (i.e., that the minimal potential benefits of circumcision are offset by the disadvantages and risks).
In addition, there are certain medical problems which are actually caused or aggravated by circumcision; one of these is meatal stenosis (a narrowing of the meatus, or urethral opening at the tip of the penis) which may later require surgical intervention. Meatal stenosis is far more often seen in circumcised children than in intact children and is, in fact, considered a consequence of circumcision. While the exact etiology is unknown, some studies point to the fact that the foreskin provides protection for the urinary meatus during the diaper period and/or that the frenular artery can be damaged during circumcision and result in ischemia (lack of proper blood supply) to the glans (head of the penis) and meatus.
Counterpoint: Lifetime cost-utility analysis is not usually a factor that enters into the decision of parents as to whether or not they will have their children circumcised.
2. Circumcision, like any other surgery, puts a child at risk for possible harm.
Point: There is a definite risk associated with circumcision. Many parents (and even many doctors) do not realize the frequency or severity of complications that can and do occur as the result of circumcision. The complication rate for infant circumcision has been given as from 2% to 10% (depending on exactly what is considered a complication). If by complication we take it to mean an unwanted and unexpected result, the best estimate of the complication rate for infant circumcision is around 5%. The most common complications include bleeding, infection, the removal of too little or too much tissue, meatal stenosis, and scarring. Less common are skin bridges, skin tags, and loss of the tip of the glans. Even loss of the entire penis and death are not unheard of. Just about anything that could happen has happened.
A child who has to live with a noticeable circumcision complication may be far worse off emotionally and physically than he would have been were he not circumcised in the first place.
Counterpoint: The operation is a fairly simple one which seldom has a significantly adverse outcome when performed by a skilled operator.
3. There is a loss of erogenous tissue which is, in itself, allegedly worth saving. A drastic circumcision, especially, can result in a significant loss of sensitivity and sexual pleasure.
Point: Many men who were circumcised at an age of awareness confirm that there is a loss of sensitivity, sometimes severe.
The foreskin is more richly innervated than the glans itself. In addition, certain structures associated with the prepuce, such as the highly sensitive frenum, are often partially or totally destroyed during a circumcision. To a greater or lesser extent (depending on the technique of the operator) the highly sensitive mucosa (what is often referred to as the "inner lining" of the foreskin) is lost to circumcision.
Through exposure to the elements and a keratinizing process, the glans and whatever mucosa remains become much thicker and less sensitive. Many free nerve endings in the glans die off during this keratinizing process.
In addition, inasmuch as the mucosa is normally adherent to the glans at birth, in order to perform an infant circumcision, it is usually necessary to separate the mucosa and the glans; doing so involves stripping or tearing the one from the other, often resulting in considerable trauma to both structures which may possibly have a lasting, detrimental effect on sensitivity and in some cases leaves noticeable pock marks on the glans and the mucosa.
Some doctors seem to feel that a "good" circumcision is a "tight" circumcision. One of the most common complaints of circumcised adults is that erections are painful due to having had a too drastic circumcision. In this regard, it should be mentioned that it is not possible to judge with any degree of accuracy in the case of an infant how "tight" his circumcision will be when he is an adult.
Counterpoint: Barring an adverse circumcision complication, most circumcised men seem to have no trouble with sexual sensitivity and sexual performance. Many men who were circumcised at an age of awareness report no noticeable loss in sensitivity.
4. There is allegedly considerable pain involved in a typical infant circumcision performed without anaesthesia.
Point: Many studies verify the fact that infants do feel pain and that they feel it intensely. Some of these studies indicate that they feel it even more intensely than do adults. There is no doubt that a circumcision without anaesthesia can be excruciatingly painful.
In addition, there is a question as to the effectiveness of the various local anaesthetic techniques which are typically employed when anaesthesia is used in an infant circumcision. There is no question, however, that the use of local anaesthesia significantly increases the risk of complications and in itself has the potential to cause vascular and nerve damage. General anaesthesia is simply too risky for use in the case of infant circumcision.
Counterpoint: Because the nervous system is not fully developed at birth, some allege that infants do not feel pain in the same way that adults do. It is claimed that this is evidenced by the fact that some infants seem to be relatively unaware that they are undergoing circumcision.
5. A boy who is circumcised will allegedly feel awkward with his mostly intact peers or relatives. [This is often referred to as "locker room syndrome."]
Point: For some circumcised boys who are growing up among mostly intact peers or relatives, this can be a problem. It is not necessarily that there is teasing of a circumcised child by others who are intact, but rather that the child himself may feel "different." The problem is often more pronounced in the case of a circumcised child who is among others who are intact than it is in the case of an intact child who is among others who are circumcised for the reason that a circumcised child has had a part of his penis cut off and may feel more "exposed" and deprived. This is especially likely when there is significant scarring, discoloration, an adhesion, a skin bridge, a skin tag, or any noticeable complication resulting from circumcision.
Some children are devastated when they first learn that a part of their penis has been cut off and disposed of. This feeling can be very intense to the point that the child will resent having been circumcised. In at least a few cases, this has caused real problems between parents and children at some point down the road.
Counterpoint: Many children feel no such awkwardness. This is especially true when the parents support their child in being circumcised, letting him know why it was that they made the decision that they made. In addition, although circumcision rates are dropping in the U.S., it is still the norm in some parts of the country.
6. There is an alleged human rights issue involved.
Point: Many humanitarians feel that a child has a right to an intact body. They feel that it is unethical for parents to seek or for doctors to cooperate in performing genital surgery on unconsenting minors when there is no clear, medical need (i.e., disease or trauma). In fact, it would appear that routine infant circumcision violates the February 1995 statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Bioethics regarding informed consent, parental permission, an assent in pediatric practice, stating that in the case of nonessential treatments, which could be deferred without substantial risk, physician and family should wait until the child's consent could be obtained.
It should be noted that while tattooing of children has been outlawed in some states, parents in those same states can opt to have their sons circumcised. In addition, while most Americans decry the practice of female "circumcision" in other cultures, they are alone in the world in sanctioning the practice of nonreligious circumcision on such a high percentage of males. Humanitarians tend to see this as inconsistent.
Counterpoint: Parents often make decisions to have medical and/or surgical procedures performed on and in behalf of their children. Inoculations and orthodontic work are two examples. Infants and young children are not in a position to make these decisions for themselves, therefore parents act in behalf of their children.
THE BOTTOM LINEThere is no clear cut medical basis on which to make a valid decision to circumcise. Therefore, the decision to circumcise represents a parental choice and nothing more.
Circumcision does provide some minimal, potential health benefits such as a lowered risk of UT Is, penile cancer, and foreskin problems. These are offset, however, by the disadvantages and risks.
Although most circumcision complications are quite minor, some are quite serious. Any decision to circumcise should be made with this in mind.
While it is true that circumcision can actually improve sexual pleasure in the case of an adult male who has a problem which is corrected by circumcision, the fact is that circumcision diminishes sexual sensitivity and pleasure to a greater or lesser extent (depending on exactly how it is performed) in the case of a normal male when there is (or would have been) no such problem.
There is a human rights issue involved. While many parents correctly believe that they have a right to make medical decisions in behalf of their children, many others believe that circumcision in the absence of disease or trauma is not properly a medical decision. They question whether genital surgery performed on unconsenting minors can be justified on the basis of parental preference.
All things considered, it is the author's opinion that routine circumcision cannot be justified either on medical grounds or on the basis of parental preference.
WHEN PARENTS DO DECIDE TO CIRCUMCISEWhen parents decide to circumcise, thought should be given to who will do the surgery and how it will be done. Too many parents are willing to take potluck in this regard; that is, the surgery is performed by their child's primary care physician in whatever manner he or she happens to perform it. Better to choose a doctor who regularly does circumcisions and who is well-trained to do them. A pediatric urologist is probably the best choice.
In addition, it is not a bad idea to discuss -- ahead of time -- exactly how the operation will be performed. Will anaesthesia be employed? If so, what type and why? What technique will be used for the operation itself? How much tissue will be removed? Will care be taken to preserve the frenum and a good deal of the mucosa?
WHEN PARENTS DECIDE NOT TO CIRCUMCISEThe important thing to remember is that, in the infant and very young child, no special care is required of an intact penis. It is especially important that no one (this includes mothers and the child's physician) attempt to forcibly retract the child's foreskin. (Doing so can cause the very problem for which physicians will often recommend circumcision.) The first person to retract a child's foreskin should be the child himself.
During the first years of life, the foreskin and glans are normally connected to each other (in the same way that the fingernails are attached to the fingers) by a common membrane called the synechia. This connective tissue dissolves naturally during the child's lifetime so that the percentage of boys who have retractable foreskins increases with age. By adolescence, the vast majority of boys will have retractable foreskins.
Once the foreskin has become retractable, the child should be taught to practice good hygiene. The following instructions given by the parent or caretaker may be helpful: 1.) Gently pull your foreskin back. 2.) Rinse with warm water. 3.) Pull your foreskin back in place over the head of your penis.
REFERENCES [NOTE: Many may be outdated]Adult Penile Circumcision: Erotosexual and Cosmetic Sequelae. Journal of Sexual Research, 1983 Aug, vol 19, pp 289-292.
Answers to Your Questions about Your Young Son's Intact Penis. (Brochure) National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers (NOCIRC); P.O. Box 2512, San Anselmo, CA 94979-2512.
Attitudes and Practices Regarding Analgesia for Newborn Circumcision. Pediatrics, 1993 Oct 4, vol 92, pp. 541-543.
Circumcision: A Decision Analysis of its Medical Value. Family Medicine, 1991 Nov-Dec, vol 23, pp. 587-593.
Circumcision. A medical of a Human Rights Issue? Journal of Nurse Midwifery, 1992 Mar-Apr, vol 37, pp. 87s-96s.
Circumcision and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. American Journal of Public Health, vol 84, #2, 1994 Feb, pp. 197-201.
Circumcision in Children Beyond the Infant Period. Pediatrics, 1993 Dec, vol 92, pp. 791-793.
Circumcision Decision: Prominence of Social Concerns. Pediatrics, 1987 Aug, vol 80, pp. 215-219.
Circumcision No Longer a "Routine" Surgical Procedure. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1995 Jun 1, vol 152, pp. 1873-1876.
Circumcision Revision in Prepubertal Boys.... Journal of Urology, 1995 Jan, vol 153, pp. 180-182.
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Complications of Circumcision. British Journal of Surgery, 1993, Oct, vol 80, pp. 1231-1236.
Early Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes about Circumcision.... Journal of Adolescent Health, 1992 Jun, vol 13, pp. 293-297.
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Male Circumcision Satisfaction. Men's Confidential. 1996, March.
Neonatal Circumcision. Urological Clinics of North America, 1995 Feb, vol 22, pp. 57-65.
Newborn Circumcision. American Family Pediatrics, 1988 Oct, pp. 151-155.
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Preputial Plasty: A Good Alternative to Circumcision. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 1994 Apr, vol 29, pp. 561-563.
Relation of Circumcision to Cancer of the Cervix. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1973 Dec, vol 177, pp. 1056-1065.
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The Circumcision Question. Postgraduate Medicine, 1992 May 1, vol 91, pp. 237-242, & 244.
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First uploaded to Internet by Rae West 98-01-18; revised 98-09-22; reuploaded 2013-04-28; anal sex and removal of clitoris note added 2013-11-05 .
Diana Spencer: the Peoples' Tributes
Rae West © 1998, 1999, 2000Summary: I copied down as accurately as possible the following epitaphs and encomia (in Lincoln cathedral, September 1997 - the reader must imagine piles of intensively-grown industrial flowers plus the occasional toy or decoration, with messages attached). These are a tiny sample of the total. So far as I noticed, none mentioned her campaign on land-mines.
Chomskyan linguistics asserts that the number of sentences is 'infinite', and that ordinary language has something like unbounded descriptive power. Perhaps Noam was wrong?
Since then I've added a note on her father, and a poem by Hal Roberts.
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- The Poppy is the Symbol of Remebrences. You'll never be forgotten Diana for all your unconditional love and support you showed the world. I miss you. I love you. Lesley, Giles & Baby Hannah
- I Love You DIANA Love Natalie aged 7 years
- BORN A LADY/ DIED A LEGEND/ YOU WERE THE JEWEL IN THE CROWN/ REST IN PEACE DANA
- For Dianna/ You were a shining light, an example to follow. You were Truly the Queen of the Nation's hearts
- To Diana & Dodi/ We are so sorry we have lost you. May you both rest in peace and be happy together in heaven
- My dear Diana,/ Oh! I wish I had met you. Though I feel I knew you very well, you caring and sweetness is something we shall treasure. The nation and the world mourn you - there will never be another like you, though William will make a fine king, your legacy to us./ Thank you
- Charlotte Brereton, aged 12/ Dear Father in Heaven,/ Let us remember the tragic day of Princess Diana's death. Let us remember her how she was Happy, Determined, Caring and Loving. So many people loved her because of how she acted towards people. ... Amen
- For Dodi/ You gave joy and happiness to the princess. Be Together in Paradise.
- Diana our love to a beautiful princess a tragic loss. Why oh why? No longer in our sight, but forever in our hearts and thoughts. For gods safekeeping.. god bless Debbie
- Diana and Dodi/ May you rest in peace/ The Queen of everybody's hearts much loved and sadly missed/ Love alway's/ Debbie
- Diana and Dodi/ Together, at play in Gods garden./The Johnson Family
- Such a sad loss/ Janet Wood
- Safe with God/ Sheila and Brian Wilson
- Diana, The New Age Princess of awareness Shine Your light to the world/ [woman's name]
- Diana, Princess of heart, you will be greatly missed rest in peace [female then male name, and surname]
- Lovely Place. V. Thorne.
- In Memory of our FIRST LADY. An Example to us all. Naomi.
- The Peoples Princess/ Never Forgotten/ Forever Loved
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Diana's father had the misfortune to die a lonely death. (I forget the details; but they involved a final painful illness alone in his private hospital room). People wishing to be informed on this depressing topic might look at our Private hospitals in Britain site.
Hal Roberts was good enough to email on 8 Jun 2000, with this:
I found your web site about Diana. I wrote a tribute to Diana in 1997 while on the road with The Smothers Brothers. We were in Las Vegas at the time.
I think I sent this poem to the website recieving these kind of things but, thought I would send it to someone again on the request of a friend.
Would like to send it to the official Diana site in England but don't know where it is. No matter right now.
* * *
Sleep peacefully our beauty, no Lancelot for you.
You've brightened our hearts, and we bid you au du.
You'll come again to shine, in a kingdom that's devine,
A Camelot that lives, for another day and time.
Our hearts' are clearly broken, and the world has loudly spoken,
We'll miss you, my dear, you were our Gwynevere.
Hal Roberts - 9/4/97
HTML Rae West First uploaded 98-01-26 This revn 98-06-21 Spencer added 99-12-22 Hal Roberts 2000-06-09.
Plant Drugs: Opium, Heroin, Cannabis, Coca...Everyone is told that spices were one of the reasons for trade with tropical countries. (Plants in hot countries typically have far more energy input, and are more able to synthesise exotic chemicals: in colder countries plants tend to struggle to keep alive).
Most plant products with no immediately obvious function presumably result from some evolutionary process: some are not liked by mammals, fungi, animals underground, worms, or other things: ginger roots presumably are less likely to be eaten, mint isn't liked by rabbits, lemons are highly acidic, cabbage leaves when bitten have an unpleasant taste, peppers can't be eaten casually, and so on. Some plants (e.g. ferns) make anti-vitamins; some are poisonous, which may help them get protein if they have corpses near them; and some have evolved psychoactive properties, no doubt not just in human beings.
There are many ways in which people found it useful to process food, usually to make it last: drying (in hot climates), salting (if there's salt), smoking (if there's wood), adding bacteria (yoghurt). Fermentation, if genes to digest ethyl alcohol are plentiful in the gene pool, has been fairly widespread. Tea, tobacco, cocoa are typical of processed plant products which aren't particularly useful, but many people like. There seems to be a gradation, and it's easy to guess some plant products have evolved to be harmful, possibly over a long time.
I've met people who deny that 'addiction' exists, though I wouldn't like to test that idea myself. Normal life has processes which lead to fatigue, tiredness, satiation, desire for change; otherwise presumably people might never stop eating, never stop drinking, never stop communicating, never stop liking some piece of music or some sensation, never stop exercising. As far as I know, nobody has much idea how such processes work, but it's presumably possible that plants, by chance, evolved chemical methods to damp and weaken some such processes. If so, there would be a genetic component: it's well-established that there are differences in reactions to chemicals (such as lactose, for example, or thiourea, or allergens).
This is not really the place to discuss the part played by Jews in the Opium Wars against China. However there seems to be a re-run, with US involvement in cocaine from south America and also heroin (i.e. processed opium poppy) from parts of Asia. It appears the British Army guards opium poppy fields in Afghanistan, after they'd been removed by the locals. I happened to hear a very good talk on this issue (click the youtube for a leaflet, read out for about 6 minutes) by a man whose son had (I've been told) been incapacitated by heroin. Unfortunately he hasn't made a follow-up video, due, he told me, to police pressure.
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After two years' harassment, Tony Bamber's heroin and Islam factsheet, distributed in Lancashire, NW England, was cleared by a jury in June 2010. Det 'Superintendent' Neil Hunter of Lancashire Constabulary was quoted as saying 'While we are disappointed with today's decision, we accept the decision of the court. We have worked very closely with the Crown Prosecution Service throughout this inquiry..' Very nice of him to 'accept' a jury's decision, though I'm not sure many people will share his feelings of disappointment. Why would he be disappointed? Does he like heroin and addiction and Islam? Does he get something out of it? (Was the 'quotation' accurate?)
Clear Thinking about 'Recreational Drugs' has some interesting different viewpoints, including the idea that many plants have opiate-like substances in them.